Author Topic: Long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a genetically modified (GM) Diet  (Read 1457 times)

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Long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a genetically modified (GM) Diet
« Reply #1 on: June 12, 2013, 06:10:44 AM »
A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a
combined genetically modified (GM) soy and
GM maize diet

by: Judy A. Carman, Howard R. Vlieger, Larry J. Ver Steeg, Verlyn E. Sneller, Garth W. Robinson, Catherine A. Clinch

1 Institute of Health and Environmental Research, Kensington Park, SA, Australia.
2 Health and the Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Bedford
Park, SA, Australia.
3 Verity Farms, Maurice, Iowa, USA.
4 Ana-Tech, Monroe, Wisconsin, USA.
5 Sioux Center Veterinary Clinic, Sioux Center, Iowa, USA.
6 School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

* Email:,

A significant number of genetically modified (GM) crops have been approved to enter
human food and animal feed since 1996, including crops containing several GM genes
'stacked' into the one plant. We randomised and fed isowean pigs (N=168) either a mixed
GM soy and GM corn (maize) diet (N=84) or an equivalent non-GM diet (N=84) in a long-
term toxicology study of 22.7 weeks (the normal lifespan of a commercial pig from
weaning to slaughter).

Equal numbers of male and female pigs were present in each
group. The GM corn contained double and triple-stacked varieties. Feed intake, weight
gain, mortality and blood biochemistry were measured. Organ weights and pathology
were determined post-mortem. There were no differences between pigs fed the GM and
non-GM diets for feed intake, weight gain, mortality, and routine blood biochemistry
measurements. The GM diet was associated with gastric and uterine differences in pigs.
GM-fed pigs had uteri that were 25% heavier than non-GM fed pigs (p=0.025). GM-fed
pigs had a higher rate of severe stomach inflammation with a rate of 32% of GM-fed pigs
compared to 12% of non-GM-fed pigs (p=0.004). The severe stomach inflammation was
worse in GM-fed males compared to non-GM fed males by a factor of 4.0 (p=0.041), and
GM-fed females compared to non-GM fed females by a factor of 2.2 (p=0.034).
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Key words:
GM corn, GM soy, GM animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation,
uterus weight.
Genetically modified (GM) crops have entered human food and animal feed in increasing
amounts since they were commercially released into fields in the USA in 1996 (USDA,
2011). The main traits in GM crops to date have been to express proteins for herbicide
tolerance (Ht) and insect resistance (Carman, 2004; USDA, 2011). Herbicide tolerant
crops are engineered to produce one or more proteins that allow the crop to survive being
sprayed with a given herbicide. Insect resistant crops are usually engineered to produce
one or more insecticidal proteins that are toxic to target insects. The latter proteins are
usually Bt proteins, so named because they are structurally similar to naturally-occurring
Cry proteins from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (ANZFA, NDb). Hence these
crops are also called Bt crop

Key words:
GMO, Back40Forums
GM corn, GM soy, GM animal feed, toxicology, stomach inflammation,
uterus weight.